In the 1990s, conflicts in the Balkans gave a boost to the development of the EU`s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The EU did not react at the beginning of the conflict and UN peacekeeping forces from the Netherlands did not prevent the Srebrenica massacre (July 1995) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the largest massacre in Europe since World War II. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) finally had to intervene in the war and force the fighters to the negotiating table. The EU`s early foreign policy experiences highlighted foreign policy in the Treaty of Amsterdam (which created the High Representative). [32] After the Second World War, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism that ravaged parts of the continent. [54] In a speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zurich, Winston Churchill went further and advocated the birth of the United States of Europe. [55] The 1948 Hague Congress was a defining moment in European federal history, leading to the creation of the European Movement International and the College of Europe, where future European leaders would live and study together. [56] The flag of Europe consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. Originally designed for the Council of Europe in 1955, the flag was adopted in 1986 by the European Communities, predecessors of the present Union. The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in these terms.[304] although the official symbolic description of the EU does not refer to the “Western world”:[305] [12] Working paper of the Commission`s services on health security in the European Union and internationally, SEC (2009) 1622 final, 3 November 2009), /docs/commission_staff_ healthsecurity_en.pdf. The European Parliament is one of three EU legislative institutions responsible, together with the Council of the European Union, for amending and approving the Commission`s proposals. The 705 MEPs in the European Parliament (MEP) are directly elected by EU citizens every five years, on the basis of proportional representation. MPs are elected at the national level and sit according to political groups and not on the basis of their nationality.

Each country has a specific number of seats and is subdivided into sub-national constituencies, where this does not affect the proportionality of the electoral system. [153] Including the overseas territories of France, which are located outside the European continent but are members of the Union, the EU experiences most types of climates, from the Arctic (northeastern Europe) to the tropics (French Guiana), making the weather averages insignificant for the EU as a whole. The majority of the population lives in areas where the marine climate is temperate (Northwestern and Central Europe), a Mediterranean climate (southern Europe) or a warm continental or semi-brain climate (Northern Balkans and Central Europe). [131] One of the 27 is the President of the European Commission (Ursula von der Leyen for 2019-2024), appointed by the European Council, subject to the compliant opinion of Parliament. According to the President, the most eminent Commissioner is the Union`s High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is, by the way, Vice-President of the Commission and also elected by the European Council. [149] The remaining 26 Commissioners are then appointed by the Council of the European Union, in agreement with the President-designate. The 27 members of the Commission, as a single institution, must be approved (or otherwise) by the vote of the European Parliament. The initial development of the European Union was based on a supranational basis that would “make a war unthinkable and materially impossible”[1][2] A peaceful way of consolidating European territories, once provided by dynastic trade unions; less often, trade unions at the country level, such as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. [4] Since the early 1990s, the CAP has undergone a series of reforms.